Denver Journal

Denver Journal

Annotated Old Testament Bibliography - 2018

01.01.18 | Denver Journal, Old Testament, Hélène Dallaire, Knut Heim, and Richard S. Hess

    An annotated bibliography of Old Testament works by the Old Testament Faculty of Denver Seminary.

    Hélène Dallaire, Knut Heim, and Richard S. Hess

    Latest revision on January 2, 2018.

    For the most part, this list considers English language studies and exegetical commentaries that have appeared within the last forty years, and especially within the past quarter century. However, there is much of value that predates this period. For one of the most useful and wide ranging bibliographies of earlier works, see:

    “Premodern Readings,” for each book of the Old Testament in Richard S. Hess, The Old Testament: A Historical, Theological, and Critical Introduction. Baker, 2016.

    Our hope is that the following list will continue to prove useful by regular updating. An older form of this annotated bibliography can be found in R. S. Hess and G. J. Wenham, eds., Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom. Eerdmans, 1998, pp. 191-218. The volume itself is a unique collection of essays on teaching the Old Testament from a variety of perspectives. A special note of appreciation is due to Robert Hubbard and the late Robert Alden, whose earlier bibliography formed the basis for what follows.  M. Daniel Carroll R. also made significant contributions during his years at Denver Seminary.

    The following categories are found below:

    Histories of Israel
    Translations of Collections of Ancient Near Eastern Texts
    Ancient Near Eastern Histories
    Hebrew Lexicons
    Biblical-Theological Dictionaries
    Hebrew Grammars
    Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism
    Sociological and Anthropological Studies
    Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies
    Literary Approaches
    Israelite Religion
    Messianic Judaism
    Commentaries by Bible book (following the order of the Protestant canon)


    AB = Anchor Bible
    AOTC = Apollos Old Testament Commentary
    BCOTWP = Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms
    BBRS = Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement
    BST = The Bible Speaks Today
    BTCB = Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible
    CBC = Cambridge Bible Commentary
    ConC = Continental Commentary
    DSB = Daily Study Bible
    ECC = Eerdmans Critical Commentary
    FOTL = Forms of Old Testament Literature
    HCOT = Historical Critical Commentary of the Old Testament
    Herm = Hermeneia
    ICC = The International Critical Commentary
    Int = Interpretation
    JPS = Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary; and Jewish Publication Society Commentary
    NAC = New American Commentary
    NCB = New Century Bible
    NCBC = New Cambridge Bible Commentary
    NIBC = New International Biblical Commentary
    NICOT = New International Commentary on the Old Testament
    NIVAC = The NIV Application Commentary
    OBT = Overtures to Biblical Theology
    OTL = The Old Testament Library
    SBTS = Sources for Biblical and Theological Study
    SHBC = Smith & Helwys Biblical Commentary
    TOTC = Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries
    TTCS = Teach the Text Commentary Series
    UBCS = Understanding the Bible Commentary Series
    WBC = Word Biblical Commentary
    WeBC = Westminster Bible Companion
    WEC = Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary

    *Exemplary in its category


    Archer, Jr., Gleason A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised edition. Moody, 1994. A conservative, occasionally polemical, always detailed and informative introduction.

    Arnold, Bill T. and Bryan E. Beyer. Encountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey. Third edition. Baker, 2015. Evangelical undergraduate survey with excellent photos, maps, charts, sidebars, and a CD with lots more photos. Helpful outlines of books and reviews of the most important ideas and terms.

    Collins, John J. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Second edition. Fortress, 2014. An up to date and readable survey of Old Testament (and apocryphal) scholarship from the standpoint of modern criticism.

    Eissfeldt, O. The Old Testament: An Introduction. trans. P.R. Ackroyd. Harper and Row, 1965. The classic liberal Protestant introduction.

    *Hess, R. S. The Old Testament: A Historical, Critical, and Theological Introduction. Baker, 2016. An overview of the content and a comprehensive review of the major approaches to each book of the Old Testament.

    Hill, Andrew E. and John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. Third edition. Zondervan, 2009. 800 pages of a book-by-book Evangelical summary of the Old Testament with plenty of colorful photos and illustrations.

    Sweeney, Marvin A.  Tanak: A Theological and Critical Introduction to the Jewish Bible.  Fortress, 2011.  Scholarly and critical introduction to the Old Testament as Jewish Scriptures, with a close text-by-text interpretation.


    In addition to the commentary series noted in the Commentary section.

    Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible.  Baker.  A careful, Evangelical discussion of the meaning of the biblical text whose primary purpose is to identify its theological significance.

    The Church’s Bible.  Eerdmans.  A series on books of the Bible that assembles significant quotations from Patristic and later Christian commentators passage by passage through the book being studied.  Isaiah (Wilken) and Song of Songs (Norris) have appeared thus far.

    Dictionary of the Old Testament.  InterVarsity Press.  Four large volumes provide dictionaries exploring the major topics of the four divisions of the Pentateuch, with contributions from a variety of (mainly) Evangelical scholars:  Pentateuch, Historical Books, and Wisdom, Poetry & Writing.  The volume on the Prophets has not yet appeared.

    The Expositor’s Bible Commentary.  Revised edition.  Zondervan.  These volumes revise the older Expositor’s Bible Commentary on the NIV, with important, concise exegesis for the pastor and teacher. 

    Forms of Old Testament Literature. Eerdmans. Analysis of books of the Old Testament in terms of their structure and the forms of literature found in them.

    Guides to Biblical Scholarship: Old Testament Series. Fortress. The best set of paperback surveys of methods of Biblical interpretation.

    Old Testament Guides. Sheffield Academic Press. These are the most useful for current discussions of the major interpretive issues and approaches on each book of the Old Testament.

    The Oxford Encyclopediae. Oxford. Current, two-volume sets explore approaches to the Bible, including the Bible and Arts (T. Beal ed.), the Books of the Bible (M. D. Coogan ed.), the Bible and Ethics (R. L. Brawley ed.), the Bible and Theology (S. E. Balentine ed.), the Bible and Archaelogy (D. M. Master ed.), Biblical Interpretation (S. L. McKenzie ed.), the Bible and Gender Studiees (J. M. O’Brien ed.) the Bible and Law (B. Strawn ed.).

    Septuagint Commentary Series.  Brill.  The first English attempt to produce a literary commentary on the Septuagint text, with special focus on Codex Vaticanus.  Volumes on Genesis, Joshua, and some of the apocryphal books have appeared.

    Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. Eisenbrauns. Collections of the most important articles in the particular field, whether specific biblical texts (e.g., R. Hess and D. Tsumura on Genesis 1-11) or on methods (e.g., C. E. Carter and C. L. Meyers on social sciences approaches).


    Brueggemann, Walter. Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy. Fortress, 1997. A provocative approach that structures the discussion around the metaphor and imagery of the courtroom.

    *Carson, Donald A. NIV Zondervan Study Bible. Zondervan, 2015. With contributions by more than sixty Evangelical scholars, the introductions, notes, and special essays focus on biblical theology.

    *Eichrodt, W. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961-67. Emphasis on the covenant. Along with von Rad, the giant in the field in the twentieth century.

    Gentry, Peter J., and Stephen J. Wellum. Kingdom through Covenant: A Biblcial-Theological Understanding of the Covenants. Crossway, 2012. A detailed and thorough analysis of the title’s themes based on the Hebrew text.

    Goldingay, John. Old Testament Theology. Volume One. Israel's Gospel. InterVarsity Press, 2003; Volume Two. Israel's Faith. InterVarsity Press, 2006; Volume Three.  Israel’s Life. InterVarsity Press, 2009.  Evangelical and readable survey of the theological message of the narrative books of the Old Testament. Volume two considers major theological themes related to God, Israel and the nations.  Volume three examines relational and personal topics.

    *Routledge, Robin.  Old Testament Theology: A Thematic Approach.  IVP Academic, 2008.  Useful for introducing the major themes discussed in Old Testament theology and the major biblical approaches to them.

    Von Rad, G. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. Harper and Row, 1962-65. Salvation history approach that tries to explain how Israelites did theology. Along with Eichrodt, the giant in the field in the twentieth century.

    Waltke, Bruce K.  An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, and Thematic Approach.  Zondervan, 2007.  A great conservative Evangelical journey through the Old Testament. 

    Special Studies

    Block, Daniel I.  For the Glory of God: Recovering a Biblical Theology of Worship. Baker, 2014. A critical and biblical analysis of worship in the Bible and its implications for today’s church.

    Hess, R. S., and G. Wenham, eds. Zion, City of Our God. Eerdmans, 1999. History, religion, and theology of Jerusalem as revealed in the variety of Old Testament literature.

    Hess, R. S., and M. Daniel Carroll R., eds. Israel's Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003. Current understanding of the role of the Messiah in the Bible and its context.

    *Hess, Richard S., and M. Daniel Carroll R., eds. Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context. Baker, 2003. Unique examination of the family in each of the major sections of the Bible.

    Satterthwaite, Philip E., Richard S. Hess, and Gordon J. Wenham, eds. The Lord's Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts. Baker and Paternoster, 1995. A current assessment of the exegesis of key Old Testament texts.

    Histories of Israel

    *Arnold, Bill T. and Richard S. Hess.  Ancient Israel’s History: An Introduction to Issues and Sources.  Baker Academic, 2014.  An up-to-date review of the questions and evidence surrounding the study of the Old Testament and the history it describes. 

    Bright, J. A History of Israel. 4th ed. Westminster John Knox, 2000. Standard of the last generation, heir of the Albright school.

    Fleming, Daniel E.  The Legacy of Israel in Judah’s Bible: History, Politics, and the Reinscribing of Tradition.  Cambridge University, 2012.  A significant, methodological rethinking of Israel’s history.

    Miller, J. Maxwell and John H. Hayes.  A History of Ancient Israel and Judah.  Second edition.  Westminster John Knox, 2006.  An updating of a classic critical study.

    Provan, Iain, V. Philips Long, and Tremper Longman III. A Biblical History of Israel. Second edition. Westminster John Knox, 2015. An Evangelical historiography.

    *Rainey, Anson F. and R. Steven Notley. The Sacred Bridge. Carta's Atlas of the Biblical World. Carta, 2006. See under Atlases.  A more user friendly abridgement has appeared, Carta’s New Century Handbook and Atlas of the Bible.  Carta, 2007.

    Shanks, Hershel, ed. Ancient Israel. From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Third edition. Biblical Archaeology Society, 2010. Popular writing with each chapter written by one or two experts in the field.

    Special Studies in History

    *In the first decade of the twenty-first century a series of symposia by Evangelical (and other) Old Testament historians explored the current state of the field with special concern to answer recent challenges to the authenticity of biblical, historical claims. Some of the most important of these papers have appeared in the following four volumes:

    • Block, Daniel I., Bryan H. Cribb, and Gregory S. Smith eds. Israel: Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? B&H Academic, 2008;
    • Hess, Richard S., Gerald A. Klingbeil, and Paul J. Ray Jr. eds.  Critical Issues in Early Israelite History. Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement 3. Eisenbrauns, 2008;
    • Hoffmeier, James, K. and Alan Millard, eds., The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions. Eerdmans, 2004;
    • Long, V. Philips, David W. Baker, and Gordon J. Wenham, eds., Windows into Old Testament History: Evidence, Argument, and the Crisis of “Biblical Israel.”  Eerdmans, 2002.

    In addition, several recent contributions are worthy of note.

    Hoffmeier, James K., and Dennis R. Magary, eds.  Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith?  A Critical Appraisal of Modern and Postmodern Approaches to Scripture.  Crossway, 2012.  A study of historical and introductory issues in light of current research and challenges.

    Römer, Thomas.  The So-Called Deuteronomistic History: A Sociological, Historical and Literary Introduction.  T & T Clark, 2005.  A useful and readable survey of this critical approach to the primary historical books of the Bible, from a position sympathetic to the theory.

    Thiele, E. R. A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings. 2nd ed., Zondervan, 1983. Remains the most convincing interpretation of the chronology of the monarchy.


    *Ebeling, Jennie, J. Edward Wright, Mark Elliott, and Paul V. M. Flesher (eds.). The Old Testament in Archaeology and History. Baylor University Press, 2017. Best up-to-date critical assessment on methods and examples of biblical archaeology by leading practitioners.

    King, Philip J. and Lawrence E. Stager. Life in Biblical Israel. Library of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2001. With color photos and drawings, this is the best discussion of the realia of life in biblical times.

    *Kitchen, Kenneth A. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 2003. Evangelical application of archaeology and especially ancient Near Eastern texts to the Bible.

    Meyers, Eric M. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Five vols. Oxford University, 1997.

    Stern, Ephraim (ed). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Simon and Schuster, 1995. 4 volumes. Supplementary Volume 5, Biblical Archaeology Society, 2008. Essential reference guide for sites.

    Walton, John H.  Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary: Old Testament. 5 volumes. Zondervan, 2009. Enlisting dozens of Evangelical scholars, this work provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the relationship between the Bible and all relevant primary sources contemporary with its origins.

    Yamauchi, Edwin M., and Marvin R. Wilson eds., Dictionary of Daily Life in Biblical and Post-Biblical Antiquity. Hendrickson, 2017. A thorough and remarkable collection of archaeological and especially textual data on a wide variety of cultural topics and the evidence for them in the Old and New Testament, in the Ancient Near Eastern and Greco-Roman worlds, and in the early Jewish and Christian worlds.


    Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly Biblical Archaeologist)

    Biblical Archaeology Review


    Aharoni, Yohanan, Michael Avi-Yonah, Anson F. Rainey, and Zeev Safrai, eds. The Carta Bible Atlas. Macmillan, 2002. A standard atlas that provides individual maps for many significant Bible events. 

    Beitzel, Barry J. Biblica the Bible Atlas: A Social and Historical Journey Through the Lands of the Bible.  Global Book Publishing, 2006. A beautifully presented atlas with helpful surveys through the historical and geographical texts of the Bible. Evangelical.

    Brisco, Thomas V. Holman Bible Atlas. Broadman & Holman, 1998. Up-to-date images, maps, and photos with running commentary. Evangelical.

    *Rainey, Anson F. and R. Steven Notley. The Sacred Bridge. Carta's Atlas of the Biblical World. Carta, 2015. Synthesizes both a comprehensive history of the Levant and a geographical study of the region, with the focus on the land of Israel during the biblical period. See the student edition, Carta’s New Century Handbook and Atlas of the Bible. Carta, 2007.

    Rasmussen, Carl G. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible. Revised edition. Zondervan, 2010. Excellent on the "big picture" maps and perspectives of the terrain. Many large maps and color photos.

    Rogerson, J. The Atlas of the Bible. Facts on File, 1985. Visually dazzling color photographs as well as discussion of geography and archaeology.

    Special Studies

    Useful teaching tools

    Abingdon Bible Map Transparencies. Abingdon. This is a wonderful set of full color maps for both Old and New Testament events and places. One of the best for overhead projection.

    Smith, George Adam. The Historical Geography of the Holy Land. 25th edition. Hodder & Stoughton, 1936; Harper & Row, 1966. This is an 1894 classic with vivid word pictures of the Holy Land.

    Survey of Israel Maps. Survey of Israel, continuously updated. Hebrew and English. This is a set of scale 1:100000 maps that cover the entire area occupied by modern Israel. Includes all significant political and topographic features with many sites of antiquity noted.

    Translations of Collected Ancient Near Eastern Texts

    Chavalas, Mark W. ed.  The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation.  Various specialists provide introduction and commentary as well as translation of key texts. 

    *Hallo, William W. and K. Lawson Younger, Jr. (eds.). The Context of Scripture. Volume 1. Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Brill, 1997. Volume 2. Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Brill, 2000. Volume 3. Archival Documents from the Biblical World. Brill, 2002. Volume 4. Supplements. Brill, 2016. This is the new Pritchard (see next entry) as a current compendium of ancient Near Eastern texts in English. There is an abundance of footnotes and cross references to biblical texts.

    Pritchard, J.B. (ed.). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd. ed. Princeton University Press, 1969. Two volumes of a paperback epitome of this larger volume have also appeared.

    *Society of Biblical Literature Writings from the Ancient World.  A multi-volume series that continues to grow and to present full translations with notes (and sometimes transliterations) of texts from the across the ancient Near East.

    Sparks, Kenton L.  Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature.  Hendrickson, 2005.  A superb introduction and commentary on the most important ancient Near Eastern literature related to the Bible; with full and complete bibliographies.

    Ancient Near Eastern Histories

    *Arnold, Bill T., and Brent A. Strawn eds. The World around the Old Testament. Baker Academic, 2016. Leading scholars provide excellent review of the thirteen major people groups connected with the Israelites.

    Briant, Pierre. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2002. At more than 1,000 pages this corrected English translation represents the best synthesis on the Persian Empire.

    Collins, Billie Jean.  The Hittites and Their World.  Society of Biblical Literature, 2007.  An up-to-date review of the history and society of ancient Anatolia.

    Hallo, W.W., and W.K. Simpson. The Ancient Near East: A History. Second edition.  Wadsworth, 1997. One of the most widely used brief histories.

    *Van de Mieroop, Marc.  A History of the Ancient Near East: ca. 3000-323 BC.  Second edition.  Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.  The most readable and current survey of the subject.

    *Younger, Jr., K. Lawson. A Political History of the Arameans: From Their Origins to the End of Their Polities. SBL, 2016.  The most thorough critical study of the origins and history of the Arameans.

    Hebrew Lexicons

    Brown, F., S.R. Driver, and C.A. Briggs. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Hendrickson, 1979. The best of the older lexicons.

    Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 9 vols. (Volume 9 is the index) Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-2016. Only major and complete English language lexicon of biblical Hebrew. Designed for a contextual and usage approach to understanding the meaning of words.

    Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Concise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. Sheffield Phoenix, 2009. An abridgement of The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew.

    Holladay, W.L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1971. Useful, quick reference.

    *Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner et al. (eds.). The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3rd ed. 5 vols. Brill, 1994-2001; Study edition, 2 vols. Brill, 2001. A translation of the most complete Hebrew and Aramaic German lexicon. New and less expensive versions of this lexicon are being produced.

    Biblical-Theological Dictionaries

    *Botterweck, G. J., H. Ringgren, H.-J. Fabry (eds.). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1977-2006. Fifteen volumes have appeared in English translation. The standard work.

    Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, Jr., and B.K. Waltke (eds.). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Moody, 1980. Brief discussions from an Evangelical perspective.

    *VanGemeren, Willem A. (ed.). New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Zondervan, 1997. The most recent and complete Evangelical contribution.


    *Accordance at Gramcord. The most comprehensive computer concordance for Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and English versions.

    *Even-Shoshan, E. A New Concordance of the Old Testament Using the Hebrew and Aramaic Text. 2nd edition. Baker, 1989. The best concordance for the Hebrew text of the Old Testament.

    Goodrick, E.W., and J.R. Kohlenberger, III. The NIV Exhaustive Concordance. Zondervan, 1990.

    Hebrew Grammars


    *Dallaire, Hélène M. Biblical Hebrew: A Living Language. Second edition. CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2017. Applies second language acquisition techniques; with illustrations, devotionals, and a website that includes teaching Videos, teaching PowerPoints, visual vocabulary PowerPoints, audio files, etc.

    Kelley, P. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Eerdmans, 1992. Continues and updates the Weingreen approach to learning Hebrew.

    Pratico, G. D. and M. V. Van Pelt. Basics of Biblical Hebrew. Zondervan, 2001. Systematic approach to the grammar and basic syntax of Biblical Hebrew. Accompanied by a CD with answer key to Workbook exercises, Visual aids for each lesson, Audio for vocabulary, and Flashworks for vocabulary.


    Dobson, John H. Learn Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 2005.  Introductory textbook based on second language acquisition methods (e.g., oral & aural, listening comprehension, reading).

    Ross, Allen P. Introducing Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 2001. A thorough introductory grammar.

    Seow, C. L. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Revised edition. Abingdon, 1995. Continues and updates the Lambdin approach to learning Hebrew.


    Arnold, Bill T. and John H. Choi, A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. The book contains a clear and brief description of all majore elements of grammar and syntax in biblical Hebrew, including nouns, verbs, particles, clauses and sentences.

    Benner, Jeff A., Hebrew Text and Lexicon of Genesis. College Station, TX: Publishing, Inc., 2007. The book contains the whole Hebrew text of Genesis plus a glossary of Hebrew words. Recommended for anyone who wishes to work directly from the Hebrew text, with a word list close at hand.

    Goldstein, Jessica W., The First Hebrew Reader: Guided Selections from the Hebrew Bible. Berkely, CA: EKS Publishing Co, 2000. This book includes short Biblical Hebrew texts with grammatical analysis of words in context. Recommended for anyone who wishes to read short portions of text and focus on grammatical forms.

    Hoffer, Victoria, Biblical Hebrew: Supplement for Enhanced Comprehension. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 2005. Each lesson covers one or two verses from the Hebrew Scriptures and provides instructions and exercises for the grammar of the text.

    Pratico, G.D. and M.V. Van Pelt, Graded Reader of Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006. This is an excellent tool to study short passages from the Hebrew Scriptures. Short Hebrew texts are chosen from Law, Prophets and Writings. Each chapter includes the Hebrew text with glossary and a grammatical commentary on the text.

    *Van Der Merwe, Christo H. J., Jackie A. Naudé, and Jan H. Kroeze. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. Sheffield, 1999. An affordable, indexed study incorporating recent insights of linguistics.

    Zvi, Ehud Ben, Maxine Hancock and Richard Beinert, Readings in Biblical Hebrew: An Intermediate Textbook. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1993. This book includes Biblical Hebrew texts with grammatical analysis and grammar/syntax exercises.


    Cowley, A.E., and E. Kautzsch (eds.). Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. 2d Eng. edition. Oxford, 1910. Traditionally the best of the reference grammars.

    *Dallaire, Hélène M., Benjamin J. Noonan and Jennifer E. Noonan (eds.). “Where Shall Wisdom Be Found?” A Grammatical Tribute to Professor Stephen A. Kaufman on the Occasion of His Retirement from Hebrew Union College–Jewish Institute of Religion. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2017. Leading grammarians contribute an up-to-date synthesis of research on all major Hebrew grammar topics.

    Waltke, B.K., and M. O'Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Eisenbrauns, 1990. An integration of modern linguistic approaches.


    Chisholm, Jr., Robert B. From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 1998. Evangelical guidance for translating Hebrew data from the Bible to a meaningful sermon.

    Stuart, Douglas. Old Testament Exegesis. A Handbook for Students and Pastors. 3rd edition. Westminster John Knox, 2001 Important principles and a guide to other studies for interpreting the Hebrew text and applying it to sermons.

    Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism

    Barton, John. Holy Writings, Sacred Text. The Canon in Early Christianity. Westminster John Knox, 1997. An important historical survey of the idea and definition of the biblical canon.

    Beckwith, R., The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church. Eerdmans, 1985. An affirmation of the Old Testament canon.

    Brotzman, E. Old Testament Textual Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction. Baker, 1994. Good Evangelical introduction for the beginner. Special guides for using Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.

    Evans, Craig A. and Emanuel Tov (eds.). Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective. Baker, 2008.  Four important essays on the Old Testament canon provide an essential introduction.

    *Jobes, Karen H. and Moisés Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint. Baker, 2000. Second edition, 2015. A reliable and readable introduction to the Greek translation of the Old Testament.

    Tov, Emmanuel, The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research: Completely Revised and Expanded Third Edition.  Eisenbrauns, 2015. The most important introduction to the study of the Septuagint for biblical scholars.

    *Tov Emmanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 3rd edition. Fortress, 2011. The best introduction to the subject. The best introduction to the subject.

    Würthwein, Ernst. The Text of the Old Testament. 2nd edition. Eerdmans, 1995. Classic discussion of the Hebrew texts and the versions.

    Sociological and Anthropological Studies

    Carroll R., M. Daniel (ed.). Rethinking Contexts, Rereading Texts: Contributions from the Social Sciences to Biblical Interpretation. JSOTSup 299. Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Collection of essays on OT and NT sociological approaches, highlighting method with a variety of applications to specific texts.

    Carter, Charles E. and Carol L. Meyers, eds. Community, Identity, and Ideology: Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. SBTS vol. 6. Eisenbrauns, 1996. A collection of important essays dealing with method and case studies from ancient Israel's society and history.

    Chalcraft, David J., ed. Social-Scientific Old Testament Criticism: A Sheffield Reader. Sheffield, 1997. A colllection of studies on the subject that have been published in the Journal for the Study of the Old Testament.

    *Clements, Ronald E. ed. The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Cambridge, 1989. A key introduction to these categories by a collection of mainly British writers.

    Esler, Philip F., ed.  Ancient Israel: The Old Testament in its Social Context.  Fortress, 2006.  Collection of essays that apply socio-scientific approaches to a variety of topics and texts with varying degrees of insights.

    Gottwald, Norman K.  The Politics of Ancient Israel.  Library of Ancient Israel.  Westminster John Knox, 2001.  Survey of political theory and archaeological findings applied to a critical reconstruction of the history of Israel.  An important work by a pioneer in the field.

    Matthews, Victor H. and Don C. Benjamin. Social World of Ancient Israel 1250-587 BCE. Hendrickson, 1993. Application of anthropology to social roles and institutions within ancient Israel. Can be a bit fanciful at times.

    *Overholt, Thomas W. Cultural Anthropology and the Old Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Fortress, 1996. An excellent introduction to the use of anthropology in the study of the prophets. Good bibliography.

    Perdue, Leo G., et al. Families in Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 1997. One of the few studies on this subject, a very useful source of reliable information.

    Pleins, David J. The Social Visions of the Hebrew Bible: A Theological Introduction. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Argues for a variety of ethical perspectives from different socio-historical settings within the Old Testament.

    Rogerson, John W. Anthropology and the Old Testament. The Biblical Seminar. JSOT Press, 1984. Documents the misapplication of anthropology in Old Testament studies.

    Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies

    *Bird, Phyllis A. Missing Persons and Mistaken Identities: Women and Gender in Ancient Israel. OBT. Fortress, 1997. A collection of significant essays written over the last twenty years by an important Old Testament feminist scholar.

    Boff, Clodovis and George V. Pixley. The Bible, the Church, and the Poor. Orbis, 1989. Presents a biblical basis from a liberationist commitment for a theology of the poor and pastoral work among the disdvantaged.

    Brenner, Athalya, and Carole Fontaine, eds. A Feminist Companion to Reading the Bible: Approaches, Methods and Strategies. Sheffield, 1997. A wide variety of essays by women and men on methods for reading, examples of interpretation, and interaction with a wide variety of religious and cultural influences on the formation and religious use of the Hebrew Bible.

    Levison, John R., and Priscilla Pope-Levison, eds. Return to Babel: Global Perspectives on the Bible. Westminster John Knox, 1999. Fifteen contributors from Africa, Asia, and Latin America examine five passages from the Old Testament and five from the New from a liberation perspective.

    Newsom, Carol A. and Sharon H. Ringe (eds). The Women's Bible Commentary. Revised edition. Westminster John Knox, 1998. A one volume feminist commentary on the entire Bible. Each entry has a bibliography for further reading.

    Pixley, Jorge. Biblical Israel: A People's History. Fortress, 1992. The application of a sociological approach in order to present the history of Israel as one of peasants' struggles against oppressors.

    Prior, Michael. The Bible and Colonialism: A Moral Critique. Biblical Seminar 48. Sheffield Academic Press, 1997. Discusses how the promise of the land and the Conquest accounts impacted native communities in Latin America, South Africa, and Palestine.

    *Sugirtharajah, R. S. (ed). Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. Second edition. Orbis/SPCK, 1995. A collection of essays from around the world that interpret particular biblical texts from a liberationist and pluralist perspective.

    Trible, Phyllis. Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. OBT. Fortress, 1984. A classical work, which combines literary and feminist criticism, to highlight the tragedy and violence in the stories of four women in the Old Testament.

    *West, Gerald O. and Musa W. Dube (eds.). The Bible in Africa: Transactions, Trajectories and Trends. Brill, 2001. Collection of essays on method and readings of particular texts from across the African continent.

    Literary Approaches

    *Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Basic Books, 1981. Still one of the best introductory guides for the beginner in interpreting narrative.

    Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. Basic Books, 1985. An excellent introduction to biblical poetry, especially the dynamics of parallelism.

    Alter, Robert. The World of Biblical Literature. Basic Books, 1992. A useful supplement to Alter's earlier work.

    Alter, Robert and Frank Kermode (eds.) The Literary Guide to the Bible. Harvard University Press, 1987. An application of the literary method to each book of the Bible.

    Amit, Yairah. Reading Biblical Narratives: Literary Criticism and the Hebrew Bible. Fortress, 2001. An up-to-date introduction to the various components of a literary reading, written by an Israeli scholar.

    Bar-Efrat, Shimon. Narrative Art in the Bible. Bible and Literature Series 17. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989. An important contribution to techniques of literary interpretation.

    Berlin, Adele. Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative. Almond, 1983. A very helpful introduction to the various elements of a literary approach.

    Fisch, Harold. Poetry with a Purpose: Biblical Poetics and Interpretation. Indiana University Press, 1988.A collection of careful and creative readings of different parts of the Old Testament.

    *Fokkelman, J.P. Reading Biblical Narrative: An Introductory Guide. Westminster John Knox, 1999. An excellent introduction to different aspects of a literary approach by a seasoned practioner.

    *Fokkelman, J. P. Reading Biblical Poetry. An Introductory Guide. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Lays out the basic principles for understanding and interpreting Hebrew poetic texts.

    Gunn, David M. and Danna Nolan Fewell. Narrative in the Hebrew Bible. The Oxford Bible Series. Oxford University Press, 1993. A counterpoint to Sternberg.

    Polzin, Robert. Moses and the Deuteronomist: A Literary Study of the Deuteronomic History. Seabury, 1980. One of the earliest and best discussions of narrative analysis in the historical books.

    Ryken, Leland and Tremper Longman III (eds.). A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Zondervan, 1993. An Evangelical counterpart to Alter and Kermode.

    *Sternberg, Meir. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Indiana University Press, 1985. Probably the most important and thorough guide to philosophy and technique of narrative writing in the Old Testament.

    Israelite Religion

    Albertz, Rainer. A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. 2 vols. Old Testament Library. Westminster John Knox, 1994. This detailed study uses a classic liberal reconstruction of the history of Old Testament literature with interaction with recent discussions and discoveries.

    Albertz, Rainer, and Rüdiger Schmitt.  Family and Household Religion in Ancient Israel and the Levant.  Eisenbrauns, 2012.  Especially strong on the archaeology of the domestic cult in Israel and on different types of personal names.

    Dever, William G. Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel. Eerdmans, 2005. An archaeologist writes a popular and polemical survey of Israelite religion with strong emphasis on the goddess Asherah.

    *Hess, Richard S.  Israelite Religions: An Archaeological and Biblical Survey.  Baker, 2007.  A  current survey and synthesis of the published evidence of material culture, Bible, and ancient Near Eastern literature related to the complexities of Israelite religions, both orthodox and otherwise.  

    Johnston, Philip S. Shades of Sheol. Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament. Leicester: Apollos; Downers Grove: IVP, 2002. Evangelical evaluation of the afterlife in the Old Testament that argues a distinction between righteous believers and the unrighteous.

    Keel, Othmar and Christoph Uelinger. Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. Translated by Allan W. Mahnke. Fortress, 1998. The most important survey of the archaeological data, and especially the iconography, related to Israelite religion.

    Miller, Patrick D. The Religion of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2000. A study of many important topics of Canaanite and Israelite religion.

    Smith, Mark S.  God in Translation. Deities in Cross-Cultural Discourse in the Biblical World.  Eerdmans, 2010.  Profound, detailed study tracing attitudes toward monotheism and polytheism in the ancient world.

    Smith, Mark S. The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel. Harper & Row, 1990. Second revised edition, 2003. A detailed synthesis of archaeological, textual, and biblical evidence for the worship of Yahweh and other deities in Old Testament times. This approach argues for a convergence of various deities to "create" Israel's God as he is known in the Bible.

    Stavrakopoulou, Francesca, and John Barton, editors.  Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah.  T & T Clark, 2010.   A representation of views on Israelite religion, emphasizing European scholarship.

    van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Brill, 1995. Second edition, 1998. This is an essential reference work on the subject.

    *Zevit, Ziony. The Religions of Ancient Israel. A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. Continuum, 2001. The massive study of more than 800 pages provides the most thorough and balanced discussion of the subject.

    Messianic Judaism

    Bock, D. L., and M. Glaser, eds. To the Jew First: The Case for Jewish Evangelism in Scripture and History. Kregel, 2008.  This collection of articles responds to “supersessionism” and “dual covenant” theology.

    *Brown, M. L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus.  Baker. Vol.1 (2000), General and Historical Objections; Vol.2 (2000), Theological Objections; Vol.3 (2003), Messianic Prophecy Objections; Vol.4 (2007), New Testament Objections.  Challenged by the popular belief that "Jews don't believe in Jesus!" Brown addresses Jewish objections to Jesus, and lays out hundreds of reasons why Jews should believe that Jesus is the Messiah.

    *Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. Messianic Judaism: A Critical Anthology. Bloomsbury Academic, 2001. Scholarly presentation of Messianic Judaism by a Jewish (non-Messianic) scholar.

    Cohn-Sherbok, D. ed. Voices of Messianic Judaism: Confronting Critical Issues Facing a Maturing Movement. Lederer, 2001. Collection of articles on liturgy, biblical interpretation, Messianic synagogues, Messianic Jewish education, intermarriage, congregational leadership, role of women, Gentile conversion, zionism, and eschatology.

    Fisher, J. ed. The Enduring Paradox: Exploratory Essays in Messianic Judaism. Lederer, 2000. Collection of articles focuses on Messianic Jewish theology, Messianic Jews and Israel, and issues related to living with a Messianic Jewish identity in a today’s world.

    Gundry, S. N. and L. Goldberg, eds. How Jewish is Christianity? 2 Views on the Messianic Movement. Zondervan, 2003. Collection of articles on issues “for” and “against” the existence of “messianic congregations.”

    *Rubin, Barry, ed. The Complete Jewish Study Bible: Illuminating the Jewishness of God’s Word. Hendrickson, 2016. David H. Stern’s English translation of the Bible with detailed study notes on the biblical text, articles on key Jewish themes, and Shabbat and Holiday readings.

    *Rudolph, David J. and Joel Willitts. Introduction to Messianic Judaism: Its Ecclesial Context and Biblical Foundations. Zondervan, 2013. Messianic Jewish and Christian scholars address key themes, issues and challenges in contemporary Messianic Judaism.

    Skarsaune, O. and R. Hvalvik, eds. Jewish Believers in Jesus: the Early Centuries.  Hendrickson, 2007.  Scholars examine Greek, Latin, and Syriac literary evidence on the presence of Jewish believers in Europe and the Middle East during the first five centuries of the Church. 

    *Stern, D. H. Messianic Judaism: a Modern Movement with an Ancient Past (revision of Messianic Jewish Manifesto). Clarksville, MD: Lederer Books, 2007.  The book is an excellent introductory survey of Messianic Jewish thought.  It addresses theological, historical, legal, and ontological issues related to the Messianic Jewish movement.

    Wilson, M. R. Our Father Abraham: Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith. Eerdmans, 1989.  Introduction to Jewish thought and Jewish roots of the Church for Gentile Christians from a Messianic viewpoint. 



    See also appropriate surveys in the Series section above.

    Alexander, T. D.  From Paradise to the Promised Land: An Introduction to the Pentateuch.  Second edition.  Baker and Paternoster, 2002.  An Evangelical and theological survey of the Pentateuch.

    Briggs, Richard S., and Joel N. Lohr, eds.  A Theological Introduction to the Pentateuch: Interpreting the Torah as Christian Scripture.  Baker, 2012.  Aware of critical issues, this volume discusses important theological themes for each of the five books.

    Hamilton, Victor R.  Handbook to the Pentateuch.  Second edition.  Baker, 2005.  An Evangelical exposition of the narrative and teachings.

    Schnittjer, Gary Edward.  The Torah Story: An Apprenticeship on the Pentateuch.  Zondervan, 2006.  A well-illustrated undergraduate Evangelical textbook on the message and meaning of the first five books of the Bible.


    *Arnold, Bill T.  Genesis.  NCBC.  Cambridge, 2009.  An important commentary with emphasis on linguistic and ancient cultural contexts as well as a well balanced survey of current scholarship.

    Brueggemann, W. Genesis. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1982. Theological reading with application.

    Cassuto, U. Commentary on Genesis. Trans. I. Abrahams. 2 vols. Magnes, 1964. Jewish scholar situates Genesis in Rabbinic and Hebrew interpretative traditions. A classic alternative to the Documentary approach. Only includes chapters 1-11.

    Hamilton, Victor. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1990. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18-50. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1995. Emphasis on comparative Semitics. Evangelical.

    Kidner, D. Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1967. An elegant interpretation of the book. Evangelical.

    Mathews, Kenneth A. Genesis 1-11:26. NAC. Broadman, 1996. Genesis 11:27-50:26.  NAC.  Broadman, 2005. Thorough exegesis and interaction with research.

    Rad, G. von. Genesis. OTL. Westminster, 1972. A classic theological interpretation from a higher critical perspective.

    Ross, Allen P. Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of Genesis. Baker, 1988. An Evangelical theological exposition with emphasis on preaching the text.

    Sarna, N.M. Genesis. The Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1989. A recent Jewish exegesis of the Hebrew text with appreciation for traditional Rabbinic exegesis.

    Waltke, Bruce K. Genesis: A Commentary. Zondervan, 2001. A competent Evangelical commentary emphasizing theological insights.

    *Wenham, G.J. Genesis 1-15. WBC 1. Word, 1987. Genesis 16-50. WBC 2. Word, 1994. The best all-around Evangelical commentary that introduces the reader to the major interpretative issues and provides clearly writing on the exegesis and theological significance.

    Westermann, C. Genesis. 3 vols. Augsburg, 1984-86. The largest of the resources; with an emphasis on collecting exegetical data.


    Cassuto, U. Commentary on Exodus. Trans. I. Abrahams. Magnes, 1967. Important for study of the Hebrew text.

    *Childs, B.S. The Book of Exodus. OTL. Westminster, 1974. The application of the canonical approach to a higher critical commentary. Includes a history of interpretation for each passage.

    Durham, J.I. Exodus. WBC. Word, 1987. Follows the method of Childs.

    Houtman, Cornelis. Exodus. Vol. 1 (1:1-7:13). and Exodus. Vol. 2 (7:14-19:25). HCOT. Kok Pharos, 1993 and 1996. Updating of classic historical critical approach to the book.

    Meyers, Carol.Exodus.NCBC. Cambridge, 2005. A readable commentary aware of both critical and literary readings and emphasizing the author's skill in anthropological analysis of the ritual texts as well as appreciating the compositional issues in the narratives.

    *Propp, William H. Exodus 1-18: A New Translation and Commentary. and Exodus 19-40: A New Translation and Commentary. AB 2A and 2B. Doubleday, 1998 and 2006. Strong on background to social institutions and customs. Important for new textual readings from the Dead Sea Scrolls.

    Sarna, Nahum. Exodus. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1991. See above for Genesis.

    Stuart, Douglas K. Exodus. NAC 2. Broadman & Holman, 2006. Important Evangelical commentary with valuable exegetical insights.


    Gerstenberger, Erhard S. Leviticus. OTL. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1996. Translation of a 1993 German work, this author provides theological and anthropological insights on Leviticus as a postexilic work.

    Harrrison, R.K. Leviticus: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1980. Evangelical.

    Hartley, J. Leviticus. WBC. Word, 1992.

    *Hess, Richard S. "Leviticus," pp. 563-826 in T. Longman III and D. E .Garland eds., The Expositor's Bible Commentary Revised Edition 1: Genesis–Leviticus.  Zondervan, 2008.  Reader friendly, up-to-date, and Evangelical integration of anthropological, archaeological, and theological interpretation.

    Levine, B.A. Leviticus. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1989. A specialist in Ugaritic studies looks at Leviticus.

    *Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 1-16. AB 3. Doubleday, 1991. Leviticus 17-22. AB 3A. Doubleday, 2000. Leviticus 23-27. AB 3B. Doubleday, 2001. The fruit of a life time of study by a major biblical scholar, this work provides the most detailed and thorough exegesis available, with full reference to comparative ancient Near Eastern, Qumran, Dead Sea Scroll, and Rabbinic sources.

    Rooker, Mark F. Leviticus. NAC 3A. Broadman, 2000. Evangelical survey with helpful summaries of exegetical insights and applications.

    Ross, Allen P. Holiness to the LORD. A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002. A careful Evangelical exegesis of this difficult book with much theological application.

    Wenham, G.J. The Book of Leviticus. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1979. Evangelical application of anthropology to categories of holiness. Oriented toward New Testament applications.


    Ashley, T. R. The Book of Numbers. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1993. Evangelical focus on the text's final form with attentional to translational issues.

    Budd, Philip J. Numbers. WBC 5. Waco, 1984. Important exegetical commentary with awareness of the critical issues.

    Cole, R. Dennis. Numbers. NAC 3B. Broadman, 2000. Evangelical commentary that interacts with realia, historical issues, literary, and theological matters.

    Davies, Eryl W. Numbers. NCB. Eerdmans, 1995. Focus on sources and their development to form the book.

    Levine, Baruch A. Numbers 1-20. AB. Doubleday, 1993. Large commentary with ancient Near Eastern detail and philological discussion.

    *Levine, Baruch A. Numbers 21-36. Anchor Bible. Doubleday, 2000. Strong on textual backgrounds to the diverse types of material.

    Milgrom, J. Numbers. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1990. Commentary on the Hebrew text which accepts a substantial historicity to the accounts.

    *Wenham, G. Numbers: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1981. Evangelical perspectives on the literary structure of the book.

    Wenham, Gordon J. Numbers. Old Testament Guides. Sheffield: JSOT, 1997. This is the best available introduction to the book of Numbers.


    Christensen, Duane L. Deuteronomy 1:1-21:9 (revised). and Deuteronomy 21:10-34:12. WBC 6A and 6B. Word, 2001 and 2002. Evangelical who studies the structure of the book as a poem with five concentric units.

    *Craigie, P.C. The Book of Deuteronomy. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1976. Evangelical, clearly written study using Ugaritic and other ancient Near Eastern evidence.

    McConville, J. Gordon. Deuteronomy. AOTC 5. Leicester: Apollos; Downers Grove: IVP, 2002. An Evangelical commentary emphasizing the theology of the book.

    Miller, P.D., Jr. Deuteronomy. Inter. John Knox, 1990. Important theological application of the book.

    Nelson, Richard D. Deuteronomy. A Commentary. OTL. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2002. A critical commentary with important exegesis of the text.

    Rad, G. von. Deuteronomy. OTL. Westminster, 1966. Theological.

    Thompson, J.A. Deuteronomy: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1974. Helpful on Ancient Near Eastern backgrounds. Evangelical.

    Tigay, J. H. Deuteronomy. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1996. A committed source critic studies the book within a Jewish context.

    Weinfeld, M. Deuteronomy 1-11. Doubleday, 1991. An authority on Deuteronomic studies comments on the text.

    *Wright, Christopher J. H. Deuteronomy. New International Biblical Commentary. Hendrickson, 1996. A leading Old Testament ethicist presents an Evangelical interpretation of the text.


    Boling, R. and G. E. Wright Joshua. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB. Doubleday, 1982. Aware of the archaeology, although dated.

    Butler, T. Joshua1-12. Joshua 13-24. 2 vols. WBC 7A and 7B. Second edition.  Word, 2014. Emphasis on the full range of literary critical, historical, and critical aspects of the text as a Deuteronomistic work.

    *Dallaire, Hélène. "Joshua," pp. 815-1042 in T. Longman III and D. E .Garland eds., The Expositor's Bible Commentary Revised Edition 2: Numbers–Ruth.  Zondervan, 2012.  Reader friendly, up-to-date, and Evangelical interpretation.

    Dozeman, Thomas B. Joshua 1-12: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB 6B. Yale, 2015.  Most thorough review of methods and exegetical approaches with many key insights on texts and issues.

    *Hess, R. S. Joshua: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1996. Integrates recent archaeological discoveries and literary analysis. Evangelical.

    Howard, David M., Jr. Joshua. NAC 5. Broadman, 1998. Evangelical, appreciative of the history, with useful word studies.

    Nelson, Richard D. Joshua. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. Joshua as the product of Deuteronomistic redaction.

    Woudstra, M. The Book of Joshua. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1981. Evangelical, regards the narrative as historical.


    Block, Daniel I. Judges, Ruth. NAC 6. Broadman, 1999. Evangelical, thorough, and detailed exegesis.

    Boling, R. Judges. AB. Doubleday, 1975. Emphasizes the traditions behind the text and places many of them in the pre-Monarchy period.

    *Butler, Trent. Judges. WBC 8. Thomas Nelson, 2009.An Evangelical and masterful study of all aspects of exegesis.

    Chisholm, Robert B. Jr. A Commentary on Judges and Ruth. Kregel Exegetical Library.  Kregel, 2013. Good exegetical and theological insights. Important for homiletical implications.

    Lindars, Barnabas. Judges 1-5. T & T Clark, 1995. The beginnings of a new ICC stopped by the author's untimely death, this work surveys a breadth of modern scholarship and closely studies the text criticism of the book.

    Niditch, Susan.  Judges.  OTL. .  Westminster John Knox, 2008.  Strong on literary analysis and a folklorist understanding of the preservation of the traditions in the book.

    Schneider, Tammi J. Judges. Berit Olam: Studies in Hebrew Narrative & Poetry. Michael Glazier, 2000. Important contribution providing a literary synthesis of the whole book.

    Webb, Barry G.  The Book of Judges.  NICOT.  Eerdmans, 2012.  Strongest literary analysis of the book. 

    Younger, K. Lawson, Jr. Judges/Ruth. NIVAC Zondervan, 2002. Evangelical and sensitive to literary forms and rhetoric.


    Block, Daniel I. See under Judges.

    Block, Daniel I. Ruth: A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. ZECOT. Zondervan 2015. Evangelical exegetical commentary with a theological emphasis.

    Bush, Frederic. Ruth, Esther. WBC. Word, 1996. An Evangelical scholar of the Bible and Ancient Near East brings his knowledge to these two books.

    Campbell, E.F., Jr. Ruth. AB. Doubleday, 1985. An important theological and archaeological discussion of the book.

    Chisholm, Robert B. Jr. A Commentary on Judges and Ruth. Kregel Exegetical Library.  Kregel, 2013. Good exegetical and theological insights. Important for homiletical implications.

    *Hubbard, Robert L., Jr. The Book of Ruth. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1988. A balanced and thorough study with an appreciation of literary criticism from an Evangelical perspective.

    Nielsen, Kirsten. Ruth. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. Written by a woman with special interests in intertextuality and plot development.

    Sasson, Jack M. Ruth: A New Translation with a Philological Commentary and a Formalist-Folklorist Interpretation. 2d ed. Sheffield, 1989. An ancient Near Eastern specialist examines this book.

    *Schipper, Jeremy. Ruth: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB 7D. Yale, 2016. The up-to-date resource for a concise survey of interpretations and informed exegetical insights.

    Younger, K. Lawson, Jr. Judges/Ruth. NIVAC. Evangelical and sensitive to literary forms and rhetoric.

    1 & 2 Samuel

    Anderson, A. A. 2 Samuel. WBC 11. Word, 1989. Considers the historical context as one in which David and Solomon are presented as rightful occupants of the throne in Jerusalem.

    Arnold, Bill T. 1 & 2 Samuel. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2003. Fine exposition of biblical text with helpful applications. Evangelical.

    Auld, A. Graeme. 1 and II Samuel: A Commentary. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 2011. Detailed and extensive commentary, with literary and thematic sensibilities, from a critical perspective.

    Baldwin, Joyce G. 1 & 2 Samuel. TOTC. InterVarsity, 1988. Helpful exegetical commentary with some attention given to theological issues. Evangelical.

    Bergen, R. D. 1 and 2 Samuel. NAC 7. B & H Publishing Group, 1996. Reflects a knowledge of the Hebrew and modern linguistics. Evangelical.

    Brueggemann, Walter. First and Second Samuel. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1990. Focus on text as literature (vs. historical questions) to probe how its ideology impacts human experience.

    Cartledge, Tony W. 1 and 2 Samuel. SHBC. Smyth & Helwys, 2001. Exposition informed by critical theory but with an eye to student and pastoral concerns. Sidebars with useful information.

    Chisholm, Robert B. Jr. 1 and 2 Samuel. TTCS. Baker, 2013. Helpful resource for pastors. Brief background information and textual observations, theological reflections, interesting illustrations. Evangelical.

    Evans, Mary J. 1 and 2 Samuel. UBCS. Baker, 2000 (Formerly NIBC 6. Hendrickson, 2000). Comments on sections and paragraphs, followed by more detailed endnotes. Evangelical.

    *Firth, David G. 1 and 2 Samuel. AOTC 8. Apollos and InterVarsity, 2009. Excellent commentary with good textual discussions and exposition. Evangelical.

    Klein, R. W. 1 Samuel. WBC 10. Second edition, Word, 2009. A commentary concerned with the final form of the text and biblical theology.

    *McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr., I Samuel and II Samuel. AB. Doubleday, 1980, 1984. The most important study of the Hebrew text in relation to Greek and Dead Sea Scroll witnesses.

    Morrison, Craig E. 2 Samuel. Berit Olam. Liturgical Press, 2013. Narrative approach focusing on structure and literary features.

    *Tsumura, David T. The First Book of Samuel. NICOT. Eerdmans, 2007. Takes seriously the Hebrew text with strong grammatical, literary, and cultural insights. Evangelical.


    Halpern, Baruch. David's Secret Demons. Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King. Eerdmans, 2001. A biblical historian takes a critical look at the text and its chief human character.

    1 & 2 Kings

    Brueggemann, Walter. 1 & 2 Kings. Smith & Helwys Commentary. Smith & Helwys, 2000. Mid-level commentary with helpful sidebars and accompanying CD-Rom. Connections section designed to stimulate theological reflection.

    *Cogan, Mordechai. I Kings. AB 10. Doubleday, 2000. Thorough discussion of the textual, critical, and archaeological problems and data.

    *Cogan, Mordechai and Hayim Tadmor. II Kings. AB 11. Doubleday, 1988. Essential discussion of the Assyrian context of Judah during the latter period of the Monarchy and especially the time of Hezekiah.

    DeVries, Simon J. 1 Kings. WBC 12. Word, 1985. Useful commentary written without apology for the difficulties in the book. Evangelical.

    Hobbs, T. R. 2 Kings. WBC 13. Word, 1985. Helpful literary and theological interpretation of 2 Kings. Evangelical.

    House, P. R. 1 and 2 Kings. NAC 8. B & H Publishing Group, 1995. Theological and literary synthesis of recent approaches. Evangelical.

    Konkel, August H. 1 & 2 Kings. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2006.. Solid treatment of text and background with along with extensive consideration of contemporary significance. Evangelical.

    *Leithart, Peter J. 1 & 2 Kings. BTCB. Brazos, 2006. One of the best commentaries in this series. Combines literary observations with wide-ranging theological reflections.

    Mulder, Martin J. 1 Kings. Volume 1: 1 Kings 1-11. HCOT. Peeters, 1998. A remarkably detailed exegetical study of the Hebrew text, with sensitivity to versions and literary forms and sympathy to historical value.

    *Olley, John W. The Message of Kings: God Is Present. BST. Downers Grove: IVP, 2011. Excellent, informed exposition with solid theological reflections. Evangelical.

    Provan, Iain W. 1 and 2 Kings. UBCS 7. Baker, 2012 (Formerly NIBC 7. Hendrickson, 1995). Literarily and theologically sensitive, with helpful endnotes and four excurses on canonical connections. Evangelical.

    *Sweeney, Marvin A.  I & II Kings: A Commentary.  OTL.  Westminster John Knox, 2007.  An excellent analysis of the form and reason for inclusion of the various contents, written from a critical perspective. 

    Walsh, Jerome T. 1 Kings. Berit Olam. Liturgical, 1996. Commentary in the context of a study of literary and narrative forms of 1 Kings.

    Wiseman, Donald J. 1 and 2 Kings. IVP, 1993. Application of archaeological and historical studies to the interpretation and application of the message of Kings. Evangelical.

    *Wray Beal, Lissa M. 1 & 2 Kings. AOTC 9. Apollos and IVP, 2014. Original translation with textual notes, helpful comments on form and structure, very good textual explanations. Evangelical.

    1 & 2 Chronicles

    Braun, Roddy. 1 Chronicles. WBC 14. Word, 1986. An Evangelical contribution with appreciation of the historical worth of the text.

    Dillard, Raymond B. II Chronicles. WBC 15. Word, 1987. Similar to Braun for 1 Chronicles, with appreciation of Williamson's work in several cases.

    *Hahn, Scott W. The Kingdom of God as Liturgical Empire: A Theological Commentary on 1–2 Chronicles. Baker Academic, 2012. Exemplary theological and ecclesial reading of 1 and 2 Chronicles with reflections spanning both testaments and the history of interpretation.

    Hill, Andrew E. 1 & 2 Chronicles. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2003. Comprehensive engagement with oft-neglected books with a careful eye to contemporary relevance. Evangelical.

    Japhet, Sara. I & II Chronicles. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1993. A detailed theological commentary that is sensitive to Chronicles as history.

    Johnstone, William. 1 & 2 Chronicles. 2 volumes. JSOTSS 253, 254. Sheffield, 1997. A literary and rhetorical study of Chronicles as a text of hope for restoration in future generations.

    Jonker, Louis C. 1 & 2 Chronicles. UBCS. Baker, 2013. Solid exposition with literary and theological sensitivities, based on solid research. Evangelical.

    *Klein. 1 Chronicles: A Commentary. 2 Chronicles: A Commentary. Hermeneia. Fortress, 2006, 2012. Exhaustive study of Hebrew text. Together the two volumes offer over 1100 pages of scholarship.

    *Knoppers, Gary N. I Chronicles 1-9: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary.  AB 12. I Chronicles 10-29: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary.  AB 12A.  Doubleday, 2003, 2004.  A detailed and insightful historical and exegetical commentary sympathetic to evangelical concerns. 

    Selman, Martin J. 1 Chronicles2 Chronicles. 2 vols. TOTC. IVP, 1994. Exposition with special emphasis on the theological significance and application. Evangelical.

    Thompson, John A. 1 and 2 Chronicles. NAC 9. B & H Publishing Group, 1994.  Appreciation of the books as historically reliable with attention to theology. Evangelical.

    Williamson, H.G.M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. NCB. Eerdmans, 1982. Presents the books as basically historical with creative development for theological purposes. Evangelical.

    Ezra & Nehemiah

    *Allen, Leslie C., and Timothy S. Laniak. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. UBCS. Baker, 2012 (Formerly NIBC 9. Hendrickson, 2003). Good exposition with attention to literary, historical, and cultural issues. Evangelical.

    Breneman, Mervin. Ezra Nehemiah Esther. NAC 10. Broadman, 1993. Conservative review of the recent discussions and applications regarding these books. Evangelical.

    Brown, Raymond. The Message of Nehemiah: God’s Servant in a Time of Change. BST. IVP, 1998. Helpful exposition with consistent personal applications.

    Clines, D.J.A. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. NCB. Eerdmans, 1984. Strong bibliographies and introductions. In Esther God's existence is a premise not requiring mention.

    Davies, Gordon F. Ezra and Nehemiah. Berit Olam. Liturgical, 1999. . A helpful focus on rhetorical strategies and devices.

    *Fensham, F. Charles. The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1982. Focus on the historical and archaeological background. Evangelical.

    Kidner, Derek. Ezra and Nehemiah. TOTC. IVP, 1979. Discussion of the theological message of the book. Evangelical.

    Levering, Matthew. Ezra & Nehemiah. BTCB. Brazos, 2007. Insightful theological comments on the biblical text that span both testaments.

    Redditt, Paul L. Ezra–Nehemiah. SHBC 9B. Smyth & Helwys, 2014. Solid commentary with an eye for contemporary relevance. Sidebars with additional information.

    Shao, Joseph Too, and Rosa Ching Shao. Ezra–Nehemiah. ABCS. Asia Theological Association, 2007. Exposition that works to interface the biblical text for the Christian church within Asian realities. Evangelical.

    Steinmann, Andrew E. Ezra–Nehemiah. Concordia Commentary. Concordia, 2010. Very detailed textual commentary from a conservative Lutheran perspective.

    *Williamson, H.G.M. Ezra-Nehemiah. WBC 16. Word, 1985. A judicious survey of the historical and major exegetical issues with an awareness of the archaeological component.


    (See also commentaries listed above for Ruth and for Ezra & Nehemiah.)

    Allen, Leslie C. and Timothy S. Laniak. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. UBCS. Baker, 2012 (Formerly NIBC 9. Hendrickson, 2003). See above under Ezra & Nehemiah.

    Baldwin, Joyce G. Esther. TOTC. IVP, 1984. Strong introduction and discussion of the book's contemporary theological relevance. Evangelical.

    *Berlin, Adele. Esther. JPS. Jewish Publication Society, 2001. Good exposition of text written by a scholar skilled in literary approaches.

    Breneman, Mervin. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. NAC 10. Broadman & Holman, 1993. See under Ezra & Nehemiah.

    Bush, Frederic W. Ruth, Esther. WBC 9. Thomas Nelson, 1996. See above under Ruth.

    Clines, D. J. A. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. NCB. Eerdmans, 1984.  See under Ezra & Nehemiah.

    Day, Linda M. Esther. Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries. Nashville: Abingdon, 2005. Careful exegesis with applications and perspectives in a post-9/11 world.

    Firth, David G. The Message of Esther: God Present but Unseen. BST. IVP, 2010. Solid exposition with an eye to contemporary relevance. Evangelical.

    *Fox, Michael V. Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther. Sec. ed. Eerdmans, 2001. Text critical and literary study that stresses how open ended the book is with uncertainty about many aspects, including the role of God. This edition has a postscript of a survey of scholarship since the first edition of 1991.

    *Jobes, Karen H. Esther. NIVAC. Zondervan, 1999. Very useful commentary that offers theological reflection and practical applications based on solid exegesis. Evangelical.

    Levenson, Jon D. Esther. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. A master of biblical theology from a Jewish perspective examines the book of Esther.

    Linafelt, Tod and Timothy K. Beal. Ruth and Esther. Berit Olam. Liturgical, 1999. Insightful literary reading rather than a traditional exposition or theological reflection.

    *Wells, Samuel, and George Sumner. Esther & Daniel. BTCB. Brazos, 2013. Thoughtful, extended theological reflections across the canon and in conversation with contemporary issues.


    Alden, Robert A. Job. NAC. Broadman, 1994. A balanced and Evangelical discussion of the Biblical text.

    Anderson, F.I. Job. TOTC. IVP, 1976. Evangelical and linguistic study of the text.

    Balentine, Samuel E. Job. Smyth & Helwys Bible Commentary. Smyth & Helwys, 2006.  A profound theological and exegetical study that is creative and hermeneutically aware.

    *Clines, D.J.A. Job 1-20. WBC 17. Word, 1989. Job 21-37. WBC 18A.  Thomas Nelson, 2006.  Remarkable study in its detail, with profound reflection on the implications of the rhetoric, and a major bibliography at the end.

    Gordis, R. The Book of Job: Commentary, New Translation and Special Studies. Ktav, 1978. A Jewish perspective with attention to the interpretation of difficult words and phrases.

    Habel, Norman C. The Book of Job. OTL. Westminster, 1985. Detailed linguistic notes with insights of literary structure.

    Hartley, J. Job. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1988. Good Evangelical survey and interaction with relevant secondary literature.

    Janzen, J.G. Job. Interp. John Knox, 1985. Existentialist approach stressing the element of free will in creation; at times more technical in its discussion.

    *Longman, Tremper, III.  Job.  BCOTWP.  Evangelical discussion of the book’s theology guided with special strength in the Hebrew poetry.

    *Seow, C. L.  Job 1-21: Interpretation and Commentary.  Illuminations.  Eerdmans, 2013.  A detailed study with focus on the history of interpretation and on the exegetical details of the argument.


    Allen L.C. Psalms 101-150. WBC. Word, 1983. A balanced and comprehensive Evangelical survey of exegesis in these psalms.

    Cohen, A. Psalms. Hebrew Text, English Translation and Commentary. Revised by E. Oratz. Soncino, 1992. A Jewish perspective on the interpretation of the Psalms.

    *Craigie, P. Psalms 1-50. WBC. Word, 1983. A clearly written Evangelical combination of comparative Ugaritic studies and theological insights with practical application.

    *deClaissé-Walford, Nancy, Rolf A. Jacobson, and Beth LaNeel Tanner. The Book of Psalms. NICOT.  Eerdmans, 2014. Valuable, current exegesis and literary analysis of the Psalter in a single volume. 

    *Goldingay, John. Psalms: Volume 1: Psalms 1-41.  Volume 2: Psalms 42-89.  Volume 3: Psalms 90-150.  BCOTWP. Baker, 2006, 2007, 2008.  A detailed postmodern exegesis with theological insight.  Evangelical. 

    Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar and Erich Zenger. Psalms 2. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005. A detailed scholarly commentary on Psalms 50-100 with much discussion about multiple stages of redaction in many psalms.

    Kidner, D. Psalms 1-72 and Psalms 73-150. TOTC. IVP, 1973, 1975. An Evangelical musical artist and theological exegete brings the psalms to life.

    Kraus, H.-J. Psalms 1-59. Translated by H. C. Oswald. Continental. Fortress, 1988. A comprehensive review of scholarship and detailed commentary on the Psalms.

    Kraus, H.-J. Psalms 60-150. Translated by H. C. Oswald. Continental. Fortress, 1989.

    Mays, J. L. Psalms. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1994. This is a theological and practical commentary set within the contexts of the canon of Scripture and the history of interpretation.

    Tate, M. E. Psalms 51-100. WBC. Word, 1990. An Evangelical focus on review of scholarship, exegesis and word studies, and the relation of psalms to one another.

    Terrien, Samuel. The Psalms. Strophic Structure and Theological Commentary. ECC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003. A theological and practical exegesis of the Psalms from an expert in Wisdom literature; with translation.

    Williams, D. M. Psalms. CC. 2 vols. Word, 1986. Evangelical.


    Bullock, C. Hassell. Encountering the Book of Psalms: A Literary and Theological Introduction. Baker, 2001. The best college survey of the teaching of the Psalms.

    Grogan, Geoffrey. Prayer, Praise & Prophecy: A Theology of the Psalms. Mentor. Christian Focus, 2001. Encounter the great themes of God, suffering, and the expectation of the Messiah in this introduction to the theology of the Psalms.


    Alden, Robert L. Proverbs: A Commentary on an Ancient Book of Timeless Advice. Baker, 1983. Evangelical exegesis.

    Clifford, Richard J. Proverbs. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1999. Concise, original discussion of the meanings of each of the proverbs and their place in their original context, as well as attention to the overall structure of the book.

    *Fox, Michael V. Proverbs 1-9. Anchor Bible. Doubleday, 2000. A detailed and careful study, with full awareness of the key issues.

    Garrett, Duane A. Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs. NAC. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. Evangelical discussion of these three Solomonic books with useful exegesis and theological application.

    Heim, Knut Martin. Like Grapes of Gold Set in Silver: An Interpretation of Proverbial Clusters in Proverbs 10:1-22:16. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft Band 273. Walter de Gruyter, 2001. Best exegesis of this difficult middle section of the book, with emphasis on context in understanding and relating the individual proverbs.

    Hubbard, D.A. Proverbs. Mastering the Old Testament. CC. Word, 1989. Evangelical exposition and application.

    Kidner, D. Proverbs. TOTC. IVP, 1964. Evangelical balanced reflections on the meaning of each of the proverbs.

    Longman III, Tremper. Proverbs. Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms, Baker, 2005. Most useful one-volume Evangelical study for the practical application of well informed exegesis.

    McKane, W. Proverbs: A New Approach. OTL. Westminster, 1970. Learned discussion based on original secular wisdom that evolved to theologically oriented wisdom literature.

    *Waltke, Bruce K. The Book of Proverbs Chapters 1-15. and The Book of Proverbs Chapters 15-31. NICOT. Eerdmans, 2004 and 2005. Evangelical with excellent linguistic and structural discussion of each part of the book, and a strong introduction.


    *Bartholomew, Craig G.  Ecclesiastes.  BCOTWP.  Baker, 2009.  An Evangelical and sophisticated literary interpretation of this difficult book with strong emphasis on theological implications. 

    Crenshaw, J.L. Ecclesiastes. OTL. Westminster, 1987. A master of biblical wisdom literature considers this book.

    Eaton, Michael A. Ecclesiastes. An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1983. Evangelical appreciation of a positive interpretation to the book as an apologetic in a world of faithlessness.

    Fox, Michael V. A Time to Tear Down and a Time to Build Up: A Rereading of Ecclesiastes. Eerdmans, 1999. A highly regarded authority on biblical wisdom literature considers Ecclesiastes as a tract on the absurdity of life.

    Fox, Michael V. Ecclesiastes. The JPS Bible Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2004. A mature scholar of Hebrew wisdom literature provides a readable commentary with much of value in the history of Jewish interpretation.

    Gordis, R. Koholeth: The Man and His World. Schocken, 1951. A philological commentary on the Hebrew text that remains useful.

    Krüger, Thomas. Qoheleth : A Commentary. Translated by O.C. Dean, Jr. Edited by Klaus Baltzer. Hermeneia. Fortress, 2004. A careful and critical exegetical study.

    Longman III, Tremper. Ecclesiastes. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1997. With great linguistic and literary skill, this Evangelical study demonstrates the argument of Ecclesiastes as a warning against negative, skeptical conclusions about God and human existence.

    Murphy, Roland E. Ecclesiastes. WBC. Dallas, 1992. Lengthy introduction with standard exegesis, the author adds a monologue on the traditional wisdom that the book challenged.

    Provan, Iain. Ecclesiastes/Song of Songs. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2001. Evangelical approach, taking a negative view of the book's main teaching with an appreciation of the theological and philosophical implications.

    *Seow, C.-L. Ecclesiastes. AB. Doubleday, 1997. Important summary of recent research with a careful exegesis of what is regarded as a Persian period book.

    Whybray, R.N. Ecclesiastes. NCB. Eerdmans, 1989. Good survey of secondary literature with exegesis that argues a middle of the road position for the Hellenistic author.

    Song of Songs

    Bergant, Dianne. The Song of Songs. Berit Olam. Michael Glazier, 2001. Literary insights and analysis.

    Carr, G. Lloyd. The Song of Solomon. An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1984. Evangelical discussion of this book as love poetry.

    Exum, J. Cheryl. Song of Songs. A Commentary. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 2005. A thorough exegetical commentary from a feminist perspective.

    Garrett, Duane, and Paul R. House. Song of Songs/Lamentations. WBC 23B. Nelson, 2004. Thoroughly researched, evenly balanced, and reasonable application of the text by an Evangelical scholar (Garrett writes on the Song) who has produced his second major commentary on this book in eleven years.

    *Hess, Richard S. Song of Songs. BCOTWP. Baker, 2005. An Evangelical and exegetical study of the Song with an integrated analysis of the Hebrew text, the poetic macro- and microstructure, and the theological significance for the Christian.

    Keel, Othmar. Song of Songs. Translated by F. J. Geiser. ConC. Fortress, 1994. An authority on Israelite iconography interprets the images of the book.

    Longman, Tremper, III. Song of Songs. NICOT. Eerdmans, 2001. Evangelical study of a collection of different love songs joined together by literary techniques into a progression.

    Murphy, R.E. The Song of Songs. Hermeneia. Fortress, 1990. A thorough commentary with theological as well as exegetical insight.

    Pope, M.H. Song of Songs. AB. Doubleday, 1977. A large commentary with frequent digressions into comparative customs.

    Provan, Iain. Ecclesiastes/Song of Songs. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2001. Interprets the Song as a drama with three main characters. See under Ecclesiastes.


    Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Isaiah 1–39, Isaiah 40–55, and Isaiah 56–66. AB 19, 19A, 19B. Doubleday, 2000, 2002, 2003. A careful and balanced analysis of the language and forms of the Hebrew text of Isaiah.

    Brueggemann, Walter. Isaiah 1-39 and Isaiah 40-66. Westminster John Knox, 1998. Canonical approach focused on ascertaining how the text speaks with power to modern realities.

    Childs, Brevard S. Isaiah: A Commentary. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 2001. The founder of the canonical approach comments with theological and literary sensitivity as well as an appreciation for the history of its interpretation.

    Goldingay, John. Isaiah. UBCS. Baker, 2012. (Formerly NIBC 13. Hendrickson, 2001). Exposition with helpful exegetical and theological insights. Evangelical.

    *Goldingay, John. Isaiah 56–66. ICC. Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2014. Exhaustive close reading of the Hebrew text with many helpful insights. Critical evangelical.

    *Goldingay, John and David Payne. Isaiah 40-55, 2 volumes. ICC. Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2006, 2014. Exhaustive linguistic, philological, and text critical study with extensive bibliographies typical of this series. Technical, helpful exegesis.

    Motyer, J. Alec. The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction & Commentary. InterVarsity, 1993. Attention to textual details within the literary structure of the book. Evangelical.

    *Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah. 2 volumes. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1986, 1998. Solid exposition of the biblical text. Introduction could be stronger. Evangelical.

    *Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2003. Helpful theological and applicational sections. Evangelical.

    Paul, Shalom M. Isaiah 40-66: Translation and Commentary. EEC. Eerdmans, 2012. Exceptional commentary by a foremost Israeli scholar with wealth of textual, literary, and comparative details.

    Smith, G. V. Isaiah 1-39Isaiah 40-66. NAC 15A, 15B. Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 2007, 2009. Detailed exposition with careful attention to exegetical details. Theological reflections for discussion of each unit. Evangelical.

    Sweeney, Marvin A. Isaiah 40-66. FOTL. Eerdmans, 2016. Best review and insights into the forms and structure of these chapters.

    Webb, Barry G. The Message of Isaiah. BST. InterVarsity, 1996. Good exposition with an eye to literary structure, historical background, and broader canonical connections. Evangelical.

    *Williamson, H.G.M. Isaiah 1-5. ICC. London: T. & T. Clark, 2006. Exhaustive linguistic, philological, and text critical study with helpful exegesis. Redaction critical approach. First of three volumes to cover chs. 1-27.


    Beyer, Bryan E.  Encountering the Book of Isaiah: A Historical and Theological Study.  Encountering Biblical Studies.  Baker, 2007. A very helpful and wide-ranging, illustrated introduction with good side discussions and charts on a variety of theological themes. Conservative Evangelical.


    *Allen, Leslie C. Jeremiah: A Commentary. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 2008. Well-informed detailed textual study focused primarily on the canonical form. Little theological reflection.

    Brueggemann, Walter. A Commentary on Jeremiah: Exile and Homecoming. Eerdmans, 1998. Helpful commentary on sections with good expositional observations and insightful theological and ideological comments.

    Craigie, Peter C., Page H. Kelley, and Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. Jeremiah 1-25. WBC 26. Word, 1991. Completed by the other authors after the death of Craigie. Accordingly, it is uneven in amount and quality of detail. Evangelical.

    Dearman, J. Andrew. Jeremiah, Lamentations. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2002. Brief comments on text with primary focus on modern application. Evangelical.

    *Fretheim, Terence E. Jeremiah. SHBC 15. Smyth & Helwys, 2002. Critically informed but not intrusive. Textual comments with substantive theological reflections by one of the more important Old Testament theologians of our time.

    *Holladay, William L. Jeremiah 1-25Jeremiah 26-52. Hermeneia. Fortress Press, 1986, 1989. A massive technical commentary with a wealth of textual and exegetical notes.

    Keown, Gerald L., Pamela J. Scalise, and Thomas G. Smothers. Jeremiah 26-52. WBC 27. Word, 1995. See above under Craigie. Evangelical.

    *King, Philip J. Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion. Westminster John Knox, 1993. Very illuminating resource for understanding background to book.

    Lalleman, Hetty. Jeremiah and Lamentations. TOTC 21. IVP Academic, 2013. Good, brief exegetical comments on the text. Evangelical.

    Longman III, Tremper. Jeremiah, Lamentations. UBCS. Baker, 2008. (Formerly NIBC 14. Hendrickson, 2008). Solid mid-level exposition with footnotes on technical matters. Evangelical.

    *Lundbom, Jack R. Jeremiah 1-20: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary; Jeremiah 21-36; Jeremiah 37-52. AB 21A, 21B, 21C. Doubleday, 1999, 2004. An exhaustive work. Study of each passage divided into Rhetoric & Composition, Notes, and Message & Audience. Second volume contains several detailed appendices, the third a supplemental bibliography.

    McKane, William. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Jeremiah 1-25Jeremiah 26-52. ICC. T. & T. Clark, 1986, 1989. Focus on textual and philology issues.

    Stulman, Louis. Jeremiah. Abingdon Old Testament Commentary. Abingdon, 2005. Insightful theological and ethical comments on the canonical shape of the book.

    Thompson, John A. The Book of Jeremiah. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1980. The standard evangelical commentary since its publication.

    Wright, Christopher J. H. The Message of Jeremiah: Against Wind and Tide. BST. IVP Academic, 2014. Offers pastor and preachers good expositional, theological, and practical insights. Evangelical.


    Bailey, Wilma Ann, and Christina Bucher. Lamentations, Song of Songs. Believers Church Bible Commentary 27. Herald Press, 2015. Concerted effort to engage the text with modern personal, ecclesial, and social life. Insightful and thought-provoking.

    *Berlin, Adele. Lamentations. OTL. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2002. A very good commentary, sensitive to literary issues and backgrounds, by a Jewish scholar.

    Dearman, J. Andrew. Jeremiah, Lamentations. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2002. See above under Jeremiah.

    Dobbs-Allsopp, F. W. Lamentations. Int. John Knox, 2002. Good exposition of text, but pastoral reflections could be stronger for this series.

    Garrett, Duane, and Paul R. House. Song of Songs/Lamentations. WBC 23B. Nelson, 2004. See above under Song of Songs.

    Hillers, Delbert R. Lamentations: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Second edition. AB 7A. Doubleday, 1992.

    Lalleman, Hetty. Jeremiah and Lamentations. TOTC 21. IVP Academic, 2013. See above under Jeremiah.

    Longman III, Tremper. Jeremiah, Lamentations. UBCS. Baker, 2008. (Formerly NIBC 14. Hendrickson, 2008). See above under Jeremiah.

    *O’Connor, Kathleen M. Lamentations and the Tears of the World. Orbis, 2002. Stellar theological, literary, and pastoral commentary that wrestles with suffering, both personal and communal.

    *Parry, Robin A. Lamentations. Two Horizons OT Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010. Solid commentary with emphasis on how to read lament and engage suffering from an explicitly Christian theological perspective. Evangelical.

    Provan, Iain. Lamentations. New Century Bible Commentary. Eerdmans, 1991. A timely commentary by an author known for literary sensitivity. Evangelical.EndFragment    

    Renkema, Johan. Lamentations. HCOT. Peeters, 1998. Detailed commentary on Hebrew text.

    *Wright, Christopher J. H. The Message of Lamentations: Honest to God. BST. IVP Academic, 2015.  Excellent introduction followed by careful theological and practical commentary. Evangelical.


    Allen, Leslie C. Ezekiel 1–19, Ezekiel 20–48. 2 vols. WBC 28, 29. Word, 1994, 1990. The first volume replaces the earlier initial volume by Brownlee. Helpful commentary with concern for Ancient Near Eastern background. Evangelical.

    *Block, Daniel I. The Book of Ezekiel. 2 vols. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1997, 1998. The most comprehensive study of the book available. Incorporates a wealth of linguistic and ancient Near Eastern comparative knowledge. Evangelical.

    Cooper, Lamar Eugene, Sr. Ezekiel. NAC 17. Broadman & Holman, 1994. Solid exposition from a balanced dispensational premillennial perspective.

    Duguid, Iain M. Ezekiel. NIVAC. Zondervan, 1999. Solid, informed exposition of Hebrew text, whose theology and applications are grounded in the Reformed tradition. Evangelical.

    Eichrodt, Walter. Ezekiel. OTL. Westminster, 1970. The classical critical commentary of a generation ago.

    Greenberg, Moshe. Ezekiel 1–20, Ezekiel 21–37. AB 22, 22A. Doubleday, 1983, 1997. Sees work as substantially from hand of the prophet and focuses on final form of the prophetic text. Jewish.

    Jenson, Robert W. Ezekiel. BTCB. Brazos, 2009. Creative treatment from the framework of the theological interpretation of Scripture perspective. Wide-ranging reflections by a theologian, not a biblical scholar.

    Joyce, Paul M. Ezekiel: A Commentary. LHB/OTS 482. T&T Clark, 2007. Up-to-date scholarship on critical and textual issues, but emphasis is on theological exposition.

    Odell, Margaret S. Ezekiel. SHBC 16. Smyth & Helwys, 2005. Insightful historical, literary, and relevant theological treatment by a significant Ezekiel scholar.

    Tuell, Steven. Ezekiel. UBCS. Baker, 2012 (Formerly NIBC 15. Hendrickson, 2009). Detailed analysis and theological. This series tries to combine a stance of believing criticism with a strong commitment to the ongoing authority of the Bible.

    *Wright, Christopher J. H. The Message of Ezekiel: A New Heart and a New Spirit. BST. InterVarsity, 2001. Solid exposition with sensitivity to theological relevance for the prophet’s time and today. Evangelical.

    *Zimmerli, Walther. Ezekiel 1–24 and Ezekiel 25–48. 2 vols. Herm. Fortress, 1979, 1983. Massive commentary within the form critical and tradition history traditions.


    Baldwin, Joyce G. Daniel. TOTC 21. InterVarsity, 1978. Helpful with attention to background, textual, and theological issues. Evangelical.

    *Collins, John J. Daniel. Herm. Fortress, 1993. Best available critical study of the text with full interaction with intertestamental literature.

    Davis, Dale Ralph. The Message of Daniel: His Kingdom Cannot Fail. BST. InterVarsity, 2013. Brief exposition with theological reflections. More traditional in stance. Evangelical.

    *Goldingay, John E. Daniel. WBC 30. Word, 1989. Detailed comments with comparisons with biblical and non-biblical parallels. Defends a late date. Evangelical.

    *Longman III, Tremper. Daniel. NIVAC. Zondervan, 1999. Helpful exposition and thoughtful theological reflections and applications from a Reformed perspective. Evangelical.

    Lucas, Ernest C. Daniel. AOTC 20. Apollos/InterVarsity, 2002. Solid, informed commentary that is open to date of some sections, for which it leans to the period of Antiochus. Evangelical.

    Montgomery, James A. The Book of Daniel. ICC. T. & T. Clark, 1927. Though now dated in many ways, this critical commentary is still a benchmark in terms of textual data and philology.

    Nelson, William B. Daniel. UBCS. Baker, 2012. Moderately critical commentary from an evangelical perspective. Attentive to textual details. Evangelical.

    *Newsom, Carol A., with Brennan W. Breed. Daniel: A Commentary. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 2014. Important addition to an important series. Impressive in erudition with an eye to the history of interpretation.

    *Pace, Sharon. Daniel. SHBC 17. Smyth & Helwys, 2008. Warm commentary from a moderately critical perspective. Replete with useful background information and contemporary connections.

    Pierce, Ronald W. Daniel. TTCS. Baker, 2015. Useful commentary with exegetical insights, theological reflections, and contemporary engagement. Evangelical.

    Porteous, Norman W. Daniel: A Commentary. OTL. 2nd ed. Westminster, 1979. An important critical commentary of a generation ago. The second edition has a Supplement to update original 1962 commentary.

    Young, Edward J. The Prophecy of Daniel. Eerdmans, 1949. A classical commentary of earlier decades. Much attention given to millennial debates. Evangelical.


    *Andersen, Francis I. and David N. Freedman. Hosea. AYB 24. New York: Doubleday, 1980. Detailed commentary with attention to literary unity and style.

    *Carroll R., M. Daniel. “Hosea,” pp. 815–1042 in T. Longman III and D. E. Garland eds., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary Revised Edition, vol. 8: Daniel–Malachi. Zondervan, 2008. Careful exposition of the Hebrew text coupled with theological comments. Evangelical.

    *Dearman, J. Andrew. The Book of Hosea. NICOT. Eerdmans, 2010. Careful exegesis with an eye for literary and theological details. Evangelical.

    Garrett, Duane A. Hosea, Joel. NAB 19A. Broadman & Holman, 1997. Detailed exposition with many helpful excurses. Evangelical.

    Harper, William Rainey. Hosea and Amos. ICC. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1905. The classic commentary of early critical scholarship. Much attention to textual and philological matters.

    Hubbard, David A. Hosea. TOTC 24. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1989. Helpful commentary with some concern for literary features. Evangelical.

    Lim, Bo H., and Daniel Castelo. Hosea. THOTC. Eerdmans, 2015. A Korean-American Old Testament scholar (Lim) collaborates with a Mexican-American theologian (Castelo) to combine exposition with systematic theological concerns. Evangelical.

    Macintosh, A.A. Hosea. ICC. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1997. A technical commentary concerned primarily with linguistic details and interested in contributions from rabbinic sources.

    Mays, James L. Hosea. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. A concise and well-written commentary from the form critical perspective.

    Munayer, Salim J. Hosea. ABCS. Asia Theological Association, 2010. Exposition and theological reflections by a Palestinian Christian. Evangelical.

    Smith, Gary V. Hosea, Amos, Micah. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2001. Informed exposition with an eye to structure; sensitive to social implications of text. Evangelical.

    *Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. WBC 31. Waco: Word Books, 1987. Solid textual and expositional commentary. Stresses covenantal background. Evangelical.

    Wolff, Hans W. Hosea. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974. A detailed form critical commentary.


    *Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976. Careful and informed exegesis with an attempt to locate texts against possible historical background. Evangelical.

    Baker, David W. Joel-Obadiah-Malachi. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2006. Well-informed exposition with timely application to modern issues from an evangelical perspective.

    Barton, John. Joel and Obadiah. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Clear discussion of the critical and exegetical issues.

    Coggins, Richard James. Joel and Amos. NCB. Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Moderately critical and informative on recent scholarly discussions. Attempts to ascertain modern relevance.

    Crenshaw, James L. Joel. AYB 24C. Garden City: Doubleday, 1995. Interest in grammatical and literary structure and features.

    Finley, T. J. Joel, Amos, Obadiah. WEC. Chicago: Moody Press, 1990. Exegesis from a conservative Evangelical point of view.

    Garrett, Duane A. Hosea, Joel. See above under Hosea.

    Hubbard, David A. Joel and Amos. TOTC 25. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1989. Helpful commentary with concern for literary features. Evangelical.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See above under Hosea.

    *Wolff, Hans W. Joel and Amos. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977. The classic form critical study to these two prophetic books.


    *Andersen, Francis I. and David N. Freedman. Amos. AYB 24A. New York: Doubleday, 1989. A massive commentary that takes the book as substantially from the hand of the prophet.

    *Carroll R., M. Daniel. Amos: The Prophet and His Oracles – Research on the Book of Amos. Westminster John Knox Press, 2002. A survey of research done over the last century, including minority and Two-Thirds World perspectives. Includes bibliographies of this research and for topics and passages.

    Coggins, Richard James. Joel and Amos. See above under Joel.

    Finley, T. J. Joel, Amos, Obadiah. See above under Joel.

    Hubbard, David A. Joel and Amos. See above under Joel.

    Jeremias, Jörg. The Book of Amos. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1998. Creative critical reconstruction of text that tries to reflect literary sensibilities.

    Lessing, R. Reed. Amos. CC. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia, 2009. Solid exegesis with extensive theological reflections from a conservative Lutheran perspective.

    Mays, James L. Amos. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. A concise well-written commentary from the form critical perspective.

    *Paul, Shalom. Amos. Hermeneia. Fortress, 1991. Excellent analysis of text with an emphasis on Ancient Near Eastern parallels and backgrounds.

    Smith, Gary V. Hosea, Amos, Micah. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2001. See above under Hosea.

    *Smith, G.V. Amos. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988. Solid exegesis with attention to theological concerns. Evangelical.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See above under Hosea.

    Wolff, Hans W. Joel and Amos. See above under Joel.


    *Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. See above under Joel.

    Baker, D.W., T.D. Alexander, and B.K. Waltke. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. TOTC 26. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988. Helpful, but sometimes brief. Evangelical.

    Baker, David W. Joel-Obadiah-Malachi. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2006. See above under Joel.

    Barton, John. Joel and Obadiah. OTL. See above under Joel.

    *Block, Daniel I. Obadiah: A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. ZECOT. Zondervan 2015. Evangelical exegetical commentary.

    *Block, Daniel I. Obadiah: The Kingship Belongs to YHWH. HMS. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2013. Focuses on the theological message and its rhetoric features. Seeks literary and theological connections across the canon. Evangelical.

    Finley, T. J. Joel, Amos, Obadiah. See above under Joel.

    *Raabe, Paul R. Obadiah. AYB 24D. Doubleday, 1996. Detailed, phrase-by-phrase comments. Comprehensive.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See above under Hosea.

    Wolff, H.W. Obadiah and Jonah. Augsburg, 1985. Form critical perspective. Not as detailed as some of Wolff's other commentaries.


    Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. See above under Joel.

    Alexander, T.D., D.W. Baker, and B.K. Waltke. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. See above under Obadiah.

    Bruckner, James. Jonah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2004. Helpful exposition with solid application for today. Evangelical.

    Lessing, R. Reed. Jonah. CC. Concordia, 2007. Solid exposition and theological reflections from a conservative Lutheran perspective.

    *Limburg, James. Jonah: A Commentary. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1993. Relevant exposition with discussions of how the book has been portrayed in the arts and interpreted in various religious traditions.

    *Sasson, Jack M. Jonah. AYB 24B. Doubleday, 1990. Detailed commentary with attention to literary nuances.

    Simon, Uriel. Jonah. JPS. The Jewish Publication Society, 1999. Treatment with sensitivity to literary issues and with an eye for theological concerns from a Jewish perspective.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See above under Hosea.

    *Trible, Phyllis. Rhetorical Criticism: Context, Method and the Book of Jonah. Fortress, 1995. A helpful introduction to rhetorical criticism with a very close literary reading of the text. Designed for classroom use.

    Wolff, H.W. Obadiah and Jonah. See above under Obadiah.


    *Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. See above under Joel.

    *Andersen, Francis I. and David Noel Freedman. Micah. AYB 24E. Doubleday, 2000. An exhaustive exegesis of the canonical form with careful attention to structure.

    Barker, Kenneth L. and Waylon Bailey. Micah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. NAC 20. Broadman & Holman, 1999. Solid exposition. Evangelical.

    Ben Zvi, Ehud. Micah. FOTL 21B. Eerdmans, 2000. Very detailed form critical study. Creative but sometimes idiosyncratic. Extensive bibliographies.

    Hillers, Delbert R. Micah. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984. A bit brief with emphasis on textual issues.

    Mays, James L. Micah. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976. A well-written commentary from the form critical perspective, although has not been as well received as his works on Amos and Hosea.

    Smith, Gary V. Hosea, Amos, Micah. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2001. See above under Hosea.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. WBC 32. Word, 1984. Not as detailed as Stuart's commentary on Hosea-Jonah in the same series (above). Evangelical.

    *Waltke, Bruce K. A Commentary on Micah. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007. Very detailed treatment by a seasoned exegete. Evangelical.

    Waltke, B.K., D.W. Baker, and T.D. Alexander. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. See above under Obadiah.

    Wolff, Hans Walter. Micah: A Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1990. A detailed form critical approach.


    Baker, David W. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. TOTC 27. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988. Helpful but sometimes overly concise. Evangelical.

    Barker, Kenneth L. and Waylon Bailey. Micah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. See above under Micah.

    Bruckner, James. Jonah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. See above under Jonah.

    Christensen, Duane L. Nahum. AYB 24F. Yale University Press, 2009. Very detailed analysis of poetic features.

    Goldingay, John and Pamela J. Scalise. Minor Prophets II. UBCS. Baker, 2012 (Formerly NIBC 18. Hendrickson, 2009). This volume covers Nahum—Malachi. Clear, thorough exposition with theological sensitivity. Evangelical.

    *Roberts, J. J. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. OTL. Louisville: Westminster/ John Knox, 1991. Focuses on textual and grammatical issues.

    *Robertson, O. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. Clear exposition with theological concerns. Evangelical.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.

    Spronk, Klaas. Nahum. HCOT. Kok Pharos, 1997. Exposition with careful attention to poetic and historical details.


    *Andersen, Francis I. Habakkuk. AYB 25. Doubleday, 2001. Detailed observations on Hebrew text with useful observations in the “Comment” sections.

    Baker, David W. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    Barker, Kenneth L. and Waylon Bailey. Micah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. See above under Micah.

    Bruckner, James. Jonah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. See above under Jonah.

    Goldingay, John and Pamela J. Scalise. Minor Prophets II. See above under Nahum.

    *Roberts, J. J. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    *Robertson, O. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.


    Baker, David W. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    Barker, Kenneth L. and Waylon Bailey. Micah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. See above under Micah.

    Berlin, Adele. Zephaniah. AYB 25A. Doubleday, 1994. A literary approach to the book.

    Bruckner, James. Jonah-Nahum-Habakkuk-Zephaniah. See above under Jonah.

    Goldingay, John and Pamela J. Scalise. Minor Prophets II. See above under Nahum.

    *Roberts, J. J. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    *Robertson, O. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.

    *Sweeney, Marvin A. Zephaniah: A Commentary. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003. Meticulous commentary, characterized by an interest in form critical issues and an effort to identify the historical background.


    Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1972. Clear exposition with theological sensitivity defending integrity of text. Evangelical.

    Boda, Mark J. Haggai-Zechariah. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2004. Very good treatment of text with insightful applications for today. Evangelical.

    Goldingay, John and Pamela Scalise. Minor Prophets II. See above under Nahum.

    Hill, Andrew E. Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC 28. IVP Academic, 2012. Solid exposition with helpful introductory discussions. Replacement volume for Baldwin. Evangelical.

    *Meyers, Carol L. and Eric M. Meyers. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. AYB 25B. New York: Doubleday, 1987. Very detailed commentary with attention to possible historical backgrounds and parallels.

    Petersen, David L. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. Well written and balanced critical approach, with an attempt to link with historical background.

    *Petterson, Anthony R. Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. AOTC 25. InterVarsity Press, 2015. Very useful commentary with discussions of textual, structural, and exegetical comments. Evangelical.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.

    *Taylor, Richard A. and E. Ray Clendenon.  Haggai, Malachi.  NAC 21A. Broadman & Holman, 2004.  Detailed premillennial exposition. Evangelical.

    Verhoef, Pieter A. The Books of Haggai and Malachi. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. Exposition with an eye to theological implications. Evangelical.

    Wolff, H.W. Haggai. Atlanta: Augsburg, 1988. Form critical perspective. Not as detailed as some of Wolff's other commentaries.


    Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. See above under Haggai.

    Boda, Mark J. Haggai-Zechariah. See above under Haggai.

    *Boda, Mark J. The Book of Zechariah. NICOT. Eerdmans, 2016. Excellent exposition of biblical text with good attention to textual matters. Evangelical.

    Goldingay, John and Pamela Scalise. Minor Prophets II. See under Nahum.

    Klein, George L. Zechariah. NAC 21B. B & H Publishing, 2008. Very detailed exegetical study from a premillennial perspective. Evangelical.

    *Meyers, Carol L. and Eric M. Meyers. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8 (vol. 1); Zechariah 9-14 (vol. 2). AYB 25B; AYB 25C. See above under Haggai.

    Petersen, David L. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. See under Haggai. Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1995. See above under Haggai, Zechariah 1-8.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.

    Webb, Barry G. The Message of Zechariah: Your Kingdom Come. BST. InterVarsity Press, 2003. Helpful theological reflections from an explicitly Christian perspective. Evangelical.

    *Wolters, Al. Zechariah. HCOT. Peeters, 2014. Extensively researched. A stellar volume in this series that looks at textual and literary matters.


    Baker, David W. Joel-Obadiah-Malachi. See above under Joel.

    Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. See above under Haggai.

    Goldingay, John and Pamela Scalise. Minor Prophets II. See above under Nahum.

    *Hill, Andrew E. Malachi. AB 25D. Doubleday, 1998. Very detailed study of Hebrew text with helpful appendices.

    Hugenberger, Gordon P. Marriage as a Covenant: Biblical Law and Ethics as Developed from Malachi. Baker, 1998. A thorough Evangelical study of the divorce passage in 2:10-16.

    *Petersen, David L. Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi. See above under Zechariah.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.

    *Taylor, Richard A. and E. Ray Clendenen. Haggai, Malachi. See above under Haggai.

    Verhoef, Pieter A. The Books of Haggai and Malachi. See above under Haggai.

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